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Unemployment Insurance: Understand the Benefit and How to Request

O Unemployment insurance It is a vital benefit for maintaining the income of Brazilian workers who were dismissed without just cause. This social right serves people in times of economic vulnerability, guaranteeing them temporary assistance while they seek reintegration into the job market.

Developed as a support network, this benefit helps maintain the well-being of workers and their families during the transition period between jobs. To be eligible, the individual must meet certain criteria, such as minimum working time and the involuntary nature of the dismissal. 

In this post, you will be able to find out all the details about this specific benefit that has helped millions of Brazilians over the years, so continue reading to resolve all your doubts on the subject.

About Unemployment Insurance

O Unemployment insurance represents a vital piece in the protection of Brazilian workers in situations of involuntary unemployment, being a right guaranteed by the country's legislation and one of the bases of social security.

History and Legal Foundations

O Unemployment insurance in Brazil it was instituted from the Federal Constitution of 1988, regulated by Law nº 7.998, of January 11, 1990. This legal mechanism integrates the set of social rights having its foundation in article 7 of the Constitution, which aims to protect the citizen against involuntary loss of employment.

Concept and Objectives

This is a temporary benefit granted to formally unemployed workers, without just cause. Its main objectives are: to provide temporary financial assistance; assist in finding a new job; and encourage professional qualification.

The primary purpose of the benefit is to guarantee a period of financial peace of mind for the worker while re-entering the job market, an essential protection of social security.

Eligibility and entitlement

Understanding the eligibility criteria and calculation rules is essential for the worker seeking the Unemployment insurance. This benefit is intended to support individuals who were dismissed involuntarily and without just cause.

Eligibility Criteria

The right to the benefit is granted to workers who are dismissed involuntarily and without just cause. He must prove:

  • Have been dismissed without just cause;
  • Be unemployed at the time of applying for the benefit;
  • Not having enough income to support yourself and your family.

Calculation of the Benefit Amount

The value of the installments of the Unemployment insurance is calculated based on the average salary of the last three months prior to dismissal. The value of the installment follows a progressive table, which considers the worker's average salary.

Types of Eligible Workers

In addition to workers governed by the CLT, these include:

  • Artisanal fisherman during the closed season;
  • Workers whose employment contract is suspended as a result of participation in a training course or program offered by the employer.

Grace Periods and Specific Rules

To request the benefit for the first time, the worker must prove at least 12 months of work in the last 18 months. In other situations, the required working time varies depending on the number of benefit requests.

Procedures and documentation

Before starting the application process for Unemployment insurance, the applicant must be aware of the necessary steps, the required documentation and the channels through which the request can be made. It is important to observe the deadline and prepare all required documents to ensure the success of the request.

Request Steps

The process for requesting the Unemployment insurance involves some specific steps:

  1. Eligibility check: Check whether you meet the criteria established for the benefit, such as having been dismissed without cause and the minimum working time.
  2. Filling out the form: Access the portal and fill out the benefit application online.
  3. Submission of documents: Attach the necessary documentation to the system or present it in person, if applicable.

Required Documentation

To request the Unemployment insurance, the applicant must present the following documentation:

  • Application document: Issued by the employer at the time of dismissal.
  • CPF and photo identification document: To confirm the applicant’s identity.
  • Work and Social Security Card (CTPS): Proof of length of service and conditions of dismissal.
  • Proof of the last 3 salaries: Useful for calculating the value of the benefit.

Service Channels

There are different ways to request the Unemployment insurance:

  • Portal Main means of making the request online, filling out the form and sending the necessary documents.
  • Caixa branches: The individual can go in person to a Caixa Econômica Federal branch to make the request.
  • Units of the Ministry of Labor and Employment: Another physical location where the application can be processed in person.

Beneficiaries and special modalities

O Unemployment insurance serves different categories of workers with specific modalities, each with its own distinct criteria and regulations. This social security benefit is essential to guarantee temporary financial support in times of professional transition.


The domestic employee has the right to Unemployment insurance upon being dismissed from work involuntarily and without just cause. This social security benefit is granted for a maximum period of three months, depending on the amount of contributions and length of service.

Formal Worker with Suspended Contract

Formal workers under a suspended contract regime for participation in courses or professional qualification programs offered by the employer are entitled to the Unemployment insurance. This modality aims to promote training and improvement during the period of work suspension.

Professional Fisherman during the Closed Period

During the closed season, when fishing is prohibited to preserve species, professional fisherman have access to the social security benefit of Unemployment insurance. The benefit is only granted while the fishing ban is in force, ensuring income until the activity can be resumed.

Rescued Worker

Workers rescued from conditions analogous to slavery are also entitled to the benefit of Unemployment insurance. This is paid in up to three installments and seeks to ensure financial support while the worker reintegrates into the job market in a dignified and safe manner.

Payment and installments

The efficiency of Unemployment insurance It is in the precision of the calculation of installments and the clarity of the forms and dates of receipt. These aspects guarantee financial support to workers at a crucial time.

Calculation of Installments

The value of the benefit installments is defined based on the average of the last three salaries received by the worker before dismissal. The number of installments varies according to length of service:

  • 6 to 11 months: 3 installments
  • 12 to 23 months: 4 installments
  • 24 months or more: 5 installments

Forms of Receipt

Beneficiaries have the possibility of receiving the Unemployment insurance across:

  • Bank account, for those with an active account;
  • Caixa's digital social savings account, created automatically when applying for the benefit;
  • Withdrawals at Caixa branches, lottery outlets or Caixa convenience stores.

Payment Dates and Cycles

Payment dates are pre-established and follow a schedule, which takes into account the beneficiary's month of birth. Payment is made in a staggered manner to avoid congestion at agencies and payment points. Checking the payment schedule can be carried out on the Caixa website or at its branches.

Support services for the unemployed

Support services provide the necessary tools so that the unemployed person can re-enter the job market. These include professional qualification programs and specialized guidance services.

Professional Qualification Programs

The Professional Qualification Program aims to train unemployed professionals to meet the demands of the job market, thus increasing their chances of re-employment. Programs such as the National Employment System (SINE) and Portal Emprega Brasil offer professional development and recycling courses.

Furthermore, the Professional Qualification Grant is offered in cases of temporary suspension of the employment contract, allowing the worker to continue their training.

Worker Assistance and Guidance

In-person assistance at service points, such as Regional Labor Superintendencies and SINE agencies, is essential to offer unemployed professionals guidance on their rights and access to services.

These centers provide detailed information on how to apply for the Unemployment insurance and how to benefit from qualification programs. Requesting the benefit can also be made through the Digital Work Card application or through the portal, facilitating access to services without the need to go to an agency.

Inspection process and combating fraud

The inspection process of the Unemployment insurance involves sophisticated mechanisms to identify and combat fraud, ensuring the integrity of payments. Responsible bodies, such as the Federal Police and the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, are always working to mitigate the incidence of fraudulent actions in the system.

Control and Audit Mechanisms

Authorities employ automated systems and regular audits to monitor the receipt of Unemployment insurance. These mechanisms are designed to detect suspicious activity or discrepancies in benefit claims. For example, routine checks are carried out to ensure that the individual is not employed while receiving the benefit, which would constitute fraudulent dismissal.

  • Verification of employment relationships: Cross-referencing of data with the national employment database to identify current records.
  • Information consistency analysis: Detailed review of the circumstances of the dismissal and the data provided by the applicant.
  • Cooperation between agencies: Exchange of information between the Federal Police and social security entities.

Reanalysis and Suspension of Payments

If inconsistencies or signs of fraud are identified during the audits, the reanalysis process begins. The benefit can be immediately suspended to prevent embezzlement from the fund. Unemployment insurance. Subsequently, once the fraud is confirmed, in addition to definitive suspension, the offender may face legal sanctions.

  • Preventive suspension: Temporary blocking of payment until the situation is clarified.
  • Investigation and decision: Detailed investigation process to confirm or rule out the possibility of fraud.

Continuous and efficient actions to combat fraud in the Unemployment insurance are critical to maintaining confidence in the system and ensuring that only those eligible benefit from this important temporary financial support following involuntary redundancy.

Additional information and resources

To facilitate access and management of the Unemployment insurance, several online tools and service points are available. These resources are essential for workers seeking information and guidance about the benefit.

Online Applications and Tools

  • Digital Work Card Application: Allows workers to access information about the Unemployment insurance and request the benefit. It is necessary to log in with the portal password.
  • SINE Fácil application: Connects workers with job opportunities and facilitates monitoring of benefit installments.
  • Portal: On the portal, workers can find guidance on how to proceed in case of doubts regarding the benefit, in addition to having access to various services related to INSS and FGTS.
  • Self-service terminals: Located in Caixa branches, lottery outlets and Caixa convenience stores, workers can carry out consultations and other services related to the benefit using the Citizen Card.

Frequently Asked Questions and Contact

  • Caixa Frequently Asked Questions Portal: Hosts a series of answers to the most common questions about the Unemployment insurance, including who is entitled, how to request it and deadlines.
  • Units of the Regional Labor Superintendencies: Offer face-to-face assistance to provide information and guidance on the Unemployment insurance.
  • Service Points: For support and clarification of doubts, workers can turn to specialized service points, where they can obtain detailed and personal information about the benefit.
  • Image Files: Available on the portal, they facilitate understanding of the procedures for receiving the benefit through illustrations and visual step-by-step instructions.

The features listed are intended to simplify the worker experience when it comes to accessing and managing the Unemployment insurance, ensuring that they have the necessary information available in a practical and accessible way.

FAQ about Unemployment Insurance

How many months does it take to receive unemployment insurance?

The time it takes to receive unemployment insurance depends on your previous work history. Generally, you must have worked at least 12 months in the last 18 months before dismissal to apply for the first time.

Who is entitled to 5 insurance installments?

Workers who are on their third benefit request and who have worked 24 to 35 months in the last 36 months are entitled to receive 5 installments of unemployment insurance.

How much does unemployment insurance pay?

The amount of unemployment insurance varies depending on the worker's previous salary. The formula considers the average of the last three salaries prior to dismissal and follows specific salary ranges established by the government.

How does unemployment insurance work?

Unemployment insurance is a benefit granted to workers fired without just cause. After dismissal, the worker can request the benefit, which is paid in three to five installments, depending on the time worked and the number of times they have already benefited.

Who is entitled to 7 insurance installments?

There is no legal provision for the payment of 7 installments of unemployment insurance. The maximum is 5 installments, depending on the length of service and the number of previous requests.

Does anyone with a formal contract for 7 months receive unemployment insurance?

Yes, workers with at least 6 months of formal work can apply for unemployment insurance for the first time.

Whoever earns R$1200 receives how much unemployment insurance?

The value of unemployment insurance for those earning R$1200 varies, but the calculation is based on the average of the last three salaries, respecting the minimum wage floor and the benefit ceiling.

What is the value of unemployment insurance for those earning R$1800?

For a previous salary of R$1800, the benefit value is calculated by the average of the last three salaries, applying the progressive unemployment insurance table.

What is the value of unemployment insurance for those earning R$3000?

The value for those with a salary of R$3000 will be calculated in a similar way, applying the calculation rules that consider the maximum benefit ceiling.

How soon can I apply for unemployment insurance again?

You must wait at least 16 months since your last claim before you can apply for unemployment insurance again.

Where do I go to apply for unemployment insurance?

You can request unemployment insurance at SINE service points, Caixa Econômica Federal agencies or through the federal government portal.

How is unemployment insurance calculated?

The unemployment insurance calculation considers the average of the worker's last three salaries before dismissal. There are salary ranges that determine the percentage applied to the average salary.

Can you combine working time from two or more companies to receive unemployment insurance?

Yes, you can add the periods worked in different jobs to reach the minimum time necessary to request the benefit.

Can you apply for unemployment insurance before receiving the guarantee fund?

Yes, it is possible to request unemployment insurance even before withdrawing the FGTS, as long as the other eligibility criteria are met.

Does anyone who is laid off receive unemployment benefits?

Workers dismissed without just cause are entitled to unemployment insurance, as long as they meet the requirements for length of service and amount of wages received before dismissal.

What is the value of unemployment insurance for those earning R$1320?

Like the other values, the benefit for those earning R$1320 is calculated based on the average of the last three salaries and application of the insurance calculation table.

What is the highest unemployment insurance amount?

The highest unemployment insurance amount is updated annually and depends on current legislation. For the current year, the benefit ceiling is defined by the federal government.

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